「中英」从商界大亨到总理:贝卢斯科尼如何改变了意大利

西尔维奥·贝卢斯科尼从未指定其中右翼意大利力量党的继承人,这给总理乔治亚·梅洛尼联合政府的未来带来了不确定性。 Andreas Solaro/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

The death of Silvio Berlusconi on Monday brought to an end one of the longest, most consequential and colorful eras in Italian politics, with both ardent admirers and die-hard critics marking a life of outsized influence as something that split contemporary Italian history into the before and after.
西尔维奥·贝卢斯科尼周一去世,结束了意大利政治中最长、最重要、最艳丽的时代,狂热的崇拜者和顽固的批评者都视其影响力巨大的一生为意大利当代历史的分水岭。
From his origins as a real estate and media mogul, Mr. Berlusconi, who was 86 when he died, became the most dominant personality on the theatrical Italian landscape. He revolutionized not only Italian politics, but also its sport, daily life, image of itself and popular culture — all through his privately owned television channels — leaving an imprint, or a bruise, on almost everything he touched.
享年86岁的贝卢斯科尼以房地产和媒体大亨的身份横空出世,随后成为极具戏剧性的意大利政治舞台上最有权势的人物。他不仅彻底改变了意大利政治,还颠覆了意大利的体育、日常生活、国家形象和流行文化——全都通过他私人拥有的电视频道实现——在他接触过的几乎所有事物上留下了印记,或伤痕。
“Goodbye Silvio,” Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni said in a statement about her coalition partner, calling him “one of the most influential men in Italian history.” He will receive a state funeral in Milan’s Duomo on Wednesday.
“再见西尔维奥,”与他合作组建联合政府的总理乔治亚·梅洛尼在一份关于他的声明中说,并称他是“意大利历史上最有影响力的人之一”。他的国葬将于周三在米兰大教堂举行。
Even in death, Mr. Berlusconi had the power to potentially destabilize the political universe and Ms. Meloni’s governing coalition, of which his party, Forza Italia, is a small but critical linchpin.
即使他的死亡也有可能扰乱政治世界和梅洛尼的执政联盟的稳定,他的政党意大利力量党是其中一个小而关键的因素
Mr. Berlusconi, who had an enormous opinion of himself, seemed to believe, along with much of Italy, that he would live in perpetuity. He recently gave his “biological age” as in his 50s, and never anointed an heir to his center-right Forza Italia party.
贝卢斯科尼自命不凡,他似乎和许多意大利人一样相信他可以永远活下去。他最近将自己的“生理年龄”定为50多岁,并且从来没有为他的中右翼意大利力量党指定继承人。
As a result, political analysts believe that either one of his children will step up to hold the party, and potentially the coalition, together, or it will disintegrate without him, putting Ms. Meloni’s government, at the beginning of a five-year term, in doubt.
因此,政治分析人士认为,要么他的孩子中的一个会主动站出来控制该党乃至执政联盟,要么联合政府将在没有他的情况下瓦解,从而使刚刚开始一个五年任期的梅洛尼政府的命运存疑。
Such an outcome would be only the last tremor Mr. Berlusconi sent through the political system. While his health and political influence diminished in recent years, everything around him could be argued to be products of his making, shaped in support of, or opposition to, the man widely known as “The Knight.”
这样的结果只是贝卢斯科尼给政治体系带来的最后一次震动。尽管近年来他的健康状况和政治影响力有所下降,但他周围的一切都可以说是他创造的产物,通过支持或反对被人们称为“骑士”的他而塑造。
That included the political allies who eclipsed him, like Ms. Meloni; the Machiavellian political operators who tried to co-opt him; even the anti-establishment opposition that tried — but never fully succeeded — to get rid of him.
这包括那些抢走他的风头的政治盟友,比如梅洛尼;试图拉拢他的马基雅维利派政治操盘手;甚至是试图赶走他——但始终未能成功——的反建制反对派。
His fans, who for years sang, “Thank Goodness There’s Silvio,” say he was a force of nature that modernized Italian politics, matured its democracy and added capitalist dynamism to a creaky economy overly reliant on government.
多年来一直唱着“谢天谢地,有西尔维奥”的粉丝们说,他是一股不可抵抗的力量,使意大利政治现代化,使民主成熟,并为过度依赖政府的腐朽经济增添了资本主义活力。
His detractors saw him as the very personification of the country’s political and cultural decline, a crooked businessman who entered politics to protect his business interests, a womanizing caricature of the Italian libertine who cozied up to despicable strongmen from Muammar el-Qaddafi of Libya to Vladimir V. Putin of Russia.
他的批评者认为他是该国政治和文化衰落的化身,一个为了保护自己的商业利益而进入政界的狡猾商人,一个拈花惹草的意大利浪荡子,讨好拉拢从利比亚的卡扎菲到俄罗斯普京的各种卑劣强人领袖。

贝卢斯科尼与普京,摄于2015年。 Alexei Druzhinin/Ria Novosti

贝卢斯科尼与卡扎菲,摄于2010年。 Max Rossi/Reuters

He embodied multitudes of contradictory personas: The reformer who promised to liberalize the country, but then governed like a populist. The family man whose long list of young companions, especially at so-called Bunga Bunga bacchanals, both scandalized the country and endeared him to aspiring Lotharios. The committed ally and lover of America who became an apologist for Mr. Putin and his invasion of Ukraine. The candidate who, in a clear conflict of interest, used his television channels as a political cudgel.
他一人身兼多个相互矛盾的角色:一名承诺要使国家自由化的改革者,随后却像民粹主义者一样执政。这个顾家的男人有一长串的年轻伴侣,尤其是在被称为“蹦加蹦加”(Bunga Bunga)的酒会上,这既是让举国震动的丑闻,也让有同样追求的登徒子对他爱戴有加。他是美国坚定的盟友和情人,却又为普京及其乌克兰入侵辩护。在明显存在利益冲突的情况下,这位候选人将他的电视频道用作政治棍棒。
Whether he changed Italy for better or worse “was a very, very complicated question to answer,” said Giovanni Orsina, dean of the Luiss School of Government in Rome and the author of “Berlusconism and Italy: A Historical Interpretation.” It is likely to be debated for a period at least as long as the three decades that Mr. Berlusconi weighed on the Italian imagination. What is certain is that he changed Italy.
罗马路易斯政府学院院长、《贝卢斯科尼主义与意大利:历史解读》(Berlusconism and Italy: A Historical Interpretation)一书的作者乔瓦尼·奥尔西纳说,他让意大利变得更好还是更坏“是一个非常非常复杂的问题”。贝卢斯科尼对意大利人的想象力产生了30年的影响,这种争论可能至少也要持续这么久。可以肯定的是,他改变了意大利。
“The impact he had through television is much deeper than an electoral cycle,” said Christian Rocca, the editor of Linkiesta, an Italian news outlet. Mr. Rocca said Mr. Berlusconi transformed the staid Italian programming “that was in color but could have been in black and white,” bringing American sports, soap operas, movies and a new Italian style of variety show adorned with beautiful women.
意大利新闻媒体Linkiesta的编辑克里斯蒂安·罗卡说:“他通过电视产生的影响远比选举周期深远。”罗卡说,贝卢斯科尼改变了古板的意大利节目,“那些节目虽然是彩色的,但和黑白无异,”他带来了美国体育、肥皂剧、电影和以美女为主角的新意大利风综艺节目。
That cultural shift to the spectacular and tawdry has not only remained on the airwaves, but critics have argued it has pervaded all of Italian society, transforming the way people look and the ambitions and dreams of a generation of Italians who hungered for the wealth and confidence that Mr. Berlusconi, transactional and aspirational and gaudy, stood for.
批评者认为,这种向排场和俗气文化的转变不仅持续在电视广播中,还渗透到整个意大利社会,改变了人们的外表以及一代意大利人的抱负和梦想,他们渴望贝卢斯科尼——关系交易,野心勃勃,华而不实——所代表的财富和自信。

对许多意大利人来说,观看贝卢斯科尼一直是种消遣。他爱搞戏剧化的表演和下流的言论,这些言论逗乐了很多人,也激怒了很多人。 Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

After the fall of Communism, which had been the chief dividing line for Italian politics for a half-century, Mr. Berlusconi capitalized on the collapse of the political establishment in a bribery scandal to “enter the field” of politics, as he famously put it. In doing so, Mr. Berlusconi became Italy’s new dividing line.
半个世纪以来,共产主义垮台一直是意大利政治的主要分界线,在那以后,贝卢斯科尼利用贿赂丑闻之下政治体制的崩溃“入场了”——这是他自己的名言。贝卢斯科尼由此成了意大利的新分界线。
“This was his great innovation,” said Mr. Rocca, “you were in favor or against, you couldn’t be indifferent.”
“这是他的伟大创新,”罗卡说,“无论赞成还是反对,你都不能无动于衷。”
Mr. Berlusconi’s polarizing style not only has remained in Italy, but it has become a global trend, seen most clearly in Donald J. Trump in the United States, who in many ways echoes his bombast.
贝卢斯科尼的两极化风格不仅在意大利保留下来,而且成为一种全球趋势,在美国的特朗普身上体现得最为明显,特朗普在很多方面都在模仿贝卢斯科尼的夸夸其谈。
Mr. Berlusconi “modernized the instruments of politics, that is to say, leadership, television, communication,” said Mr. Orsina. “He changed the political language.”
贝卢斯科尼“使政治工具现代化,也就是说,使领导、电视和沟通工具现代化,”奥西纳说。“他改变了政治语言。”
And he started doing that, said Enrico Letta, the former Italian prime minister and center-left opponent of Mr. Berlusconi, by changing “the Italians’ daily life with commercial television,” giving them greater choice. In return those viewers provided Mr. Berlusconi with “a huge reserve of votes.”
意大利前总理、贝卢斯科尼的中左翼对手恩里科·莱塔说,贝卢斯科尼开始这么做是通过“用商业电视改变意大利人的日常生活”,给了他们更多的选择。作为回报,这些观众为贝卢斯科尼提供了“巨大的选票储备”。
He also changed the way Italian politicians sounded. He projected optimism, capitalized on over-the-top demonization by his critics and perfected victimization. He painted all his critics red as Communists, ushering in a combative campaigning style and delegitimization of institutions that would be distilled to the poisonous messages that his enemies and acolytes flooded social media with in the last decade.
他还改变了意大利政界人士的说话方式。他表现出乐观主义,利用批评者将他自己过分妖魔化,塑造出完美受害者形象。他把所有批评他的人都描绘成红色共产主义者,开创了一种好斗的竞选风格和对体制正统的消解,后来这种风格被提炼成过去十年里他的敌人和助手在社交媒体上大量使用的有毒信息。
But even as Italian politicians across the spectrum paid homage to Mr. Berlusconi on Monday, they began plotting next steps.
不过,就在意大利各派政界人士周一向贝卢斯科尼表示敬意的同时,他们也开始策划下一步行动。
In recent months, Mr. Berlusconi’s loyalists have jousted to take the helm. They included Italy’s current foreign minister, Antonio Tajani, as well as Licia Ronzulli, a senator, who acted as Mr. Berlusconi’s de facto nurse and Marta Fascina, a girlfriend more than 50 years his junior whom he celebrated a wedding with but did not officially marry.
近几个月来,贝卢斯科尼的忠实拥护者一直在争夺大权。其中包括现任外交部长安东尼奥·塔贾尼,事实上已经成为贝卢斯科尼的看护人的参议员利西娅·隆祖利,以及比贝卢斯科尼小50多岁的女友玛尔塔·法西娜,他曾与她举行过婚礼,但没有正式结婚。

分析人士称,意大利政府的稳定性可能取决于贝卢斯科尼的女儿玛丽娜的决定。 Daniel Dal Zennaro/EPA, via Shutterstock

“We have the duty, as Forza Italia, to go ahead, even though we are wounded,” Mr. Tajani said, adding that Mr. Berlusconi wanted the party to stay compact and in the government. “To honor him and continue his project we must look to the future. Forza Italia will be there.”
“作为意大利力量党,尽管受了伤,我们有责任继续前进,”塔贾尼说。他还说,贝卢斯科尼希望这个党保持团结,留在政府中。“为了纪念他并继续他的事业,我们必须展望未来。意大利力量党会在那里。”
The former center-left prime minister, Matteo Renzi, whom Mr. Berlusconi apparently once saw as a potential successor before double-crossing (after Mr. Renzi double-crossed him), has sought to regain relevance by positioning himself as the heir of the moderate Italian center that Mr. Berlusconi once controlled.
前中左翼总理马泰奥·伦齐似乎曾被贝卢斯科尼视为潜在的继任者,但后来他出卖了伦齐(在伦齐出卖他之后)。伦齐试图将自己定位为一度由贝卢斯科尼控制的意大利温和中间派的继承人,从而重新赢得关注。
Many consider it an impossible mission. But Mr. Renzi, a consummate political operator, has licked his chops at the chance of vacuuming up Mr. Berlusconi’s parliament members and once again controlling enough support to become vital in Italian politics, either to prop up or take down Ms. Meloni’s government.
许多人认为这是一个不可能完成的任务。但伦齐是一位老练的政治操盘手,等不及要开始拉拢贝卢斯科尼的议员,并再次获得足够的支持,成为意大利政坛的关键人物,无论最终是要支持还是推翻梅洛尼的政府。
Ms. Meloni said in a recent interview that Mr. Berlusconi put her in a difficult situation with his reputation for womanizing when she was a young minister in one of his governments. And Mr. Berlusconi’s clear backing of Mr. Putin in the war in Ukraine emerged as a political headache for her. (“For me, Silvio was a dear person, a true friend,” Mr. Putin said in a statement Monday.)
梅洛尼在最近的采访中说,当她还是贝卢斯科尼的某届政府中的年轻部长时,贝卢斯科尼好色的名声让她十分为难。贝卢斯科尼在乌克兰战争中明确支持普京,这让她在政治上很头疼。(“对我来说,西尔维奥是一个亲爱的人,一个真正的朋友,”普京周一在一份声明中说。)
But now Ms. Meloni, who honored his memory, needed to keep his supporters in the fold.
但现在,缅怀他的梅洛尼需要留住他的支持者。

去年,贝卢斯科尼和意大利现任总理乔治亚·梅洛尼。 Yara Nardi/Reuters

The stability of the Italian government, analysts said, may depend on the decisions of Mr. Berlusconi’s daughter, Marina, widely considered to be the sharpest in a family that has had its own succession feuds.
分析人士称,意大利政府的稳定可能取决于贝卢斯科尼的女儿玛丽娜的决定,她被普遍认为是贝卢斯科尼家族中最敏锐的人,而这个家族本身也存在继承纠纷。
“The question is will Marina Berlusconi step in?” said Roberto D’Alimonte, a political scientist at Luiss Guido Carli University in Rome. “The party will disband without the Berlusconi brand.”
“问题是,玛丽娜·贝卢斯科尼会介入吗?”罗马路易斯·吉多·卡里大学的政治学家罗伯托·达利蒙特说。“没有贝卢斯科尼的品牌,这个党就会解散。”
“If she steps in,” he said, or makes it clear she is running things behind the scenes, “the party has a chance to survive and the Meloni government won’t be particularly affected,” as the two are understood to be in sync. If Ms. Berlusconi, an executive in her father’s empire who apparently does not love politics, stays away, he said, “the repercussions will be greater.”
“如果她介入,”他说,或者明确表示她在幕后运作,“这个党就有机会生存下去,而梅洛尼政府也不会受到特别大的影响,”因为这两人被认为是一致的。玛丽娜·贝卢斯科尼是父亲商业帝国的高管,看起来不喜欢政治。如果她决定远离该党,“造成的影响会更大。”
Her father did little without repercussions.
她的父亲无论做什么事都会造成影响。
Mr. Rocca said that one story about Mr. Berlusconi summed him up.
罗卡说,有这样一个故事可以概括贝卢斯科尼这个人。
When he was starting out as a real estate tycoon in Milan, he said, Mr. Berlusconi wanted to build a suburban-like housing complex and market it as an oasis of peace and quiet.
他说,在以米兰房地产大亨的身份刚刚开始起步时,他想建造一个类似郊区的住宅区,并把它作为一片和平与宁静的绿洲来推销。
But planes flying in and out of the nearby airport made that a hard sell. To reroute the planes, Mr. Berlusconi built a hospital, over which they could not fly, greasing more than a few palms in the process. The hospital, San Raffaele, became a center of excellence, and it was where he died on Monday morning.
但附近机场起起落落的飞机让人很难接受。为了改变飞机的航线,贝卢斯科尼修建了一座医院——因为飞机不能在医院上空飞行,为此一路上打点了不少人。后来这座名为圣拉斐尔的医院成了一个卓越的医疗中心,周一上午,他就是在那里去世的。
“That’s Berlusconi — entrepreneur, outlaw, politician,” he said. “But somehow in the end, it was a good thing.”
“这就是贝卢斯科尼——企业家、不法之徒、政客,”罗卡说。“但兜兜转转到最后,这还是算件好事。”

Elisabetta Povoledo和Gaia Pianigiani对本文有报道贡献。

Jason Horowitz是罗马分社社长,报道意大利、梵蒂冈、希腊及南欧其他地方的新闻。他此前对2016年总统大选、奥巴马政府及国会均做过报道,重点关注政治人物报道及特写。欢迎在Twitter上关注他:@jasondhorowitz

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