「中英」习近平会见巴勒斯坦领导人,中国扩大中东影响力

中国领导人习近平在北京欢迎巴勒斯坦民族权力机构主席马哈茂德·阿巴斯来访。这次访问为期四天。 Pool photo by Jade Gao

China’s top leader, Xi Jinping, met with the president of the Palestinian Authority, Mahmoud Abbas, in Beijing on Wednesday, as Mr. Xi pushes to expand China’s influence in the Middle East and cast his country as an alternative to the United States for leadership in global diplomacy.
周三,中国最高领导人习近平在北京会见了巴勒斯坦民族权力机构主席马哈茂德·阿巴斯。习近平已在努力扩大中国在中东地区的影响力,让他的国家成为美国全球外交领导地位的替代者。
In the lead-up to Mr. Abbas’s four-day visit, which began on Tuesday, Chinese officials had repeatedly suggested that China could help pave the way for peace talks between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The Chinese state media had also fiercely criticized the United States for failing to broker a settlement between the two.
阿巴斯对中国为期四天的访问始于周二。中国官员在阿巴斯到访前一再暗示,中国可以为以色列与巴勒斯坦民族权力机构之间恢复和谈发挥作用。中国官媒还强烈批评美国未能促成巴以和平协议的达成。
And on Wednesday, Mr. Xi put forward a three-part proposal for a two-state solution to the conflict, according to the state media. The plan appeared largely similar to a proposition that Mr. Xi had put forward in 2013, which failed to achieve any breakthroughs.
据中国官媒报道,习近平周三为解决巴以冲突提出了有三点主张的“两国方案”。这个方案看起来与习近平2013年提出的方案大体一样,当时未能取得突破。
“Justice must be returned to Palestine as soon as possible,” Xinhua, the state news agency, reported Mr. Xi as saying. “China is willing to play a positive role in helping Palestine achieve internal reconciliation and promote peace talks.”
“必须尽快还巴勒斯坦以公道,”据国家通讯社新华社报道,习近平说。“中方愿为巴方实现内部和解、推动和谈发挥积极作用。”
Mr. Xi has been working to burnish his image as a force for global peace in recent months, especially as China has emerged from three years of isolation during the coronavirus pandemic and sought to reassert its position as a major power on the world stage. Mr. Xi has hosted a stream of world leaders this year, including from France, Brazil and Iran. Beijing has suggested that it could play a role in mediating an end to the war in Ukraine, though Western leaders have been skeptical of that claim.
近几个月来,习近平一直在努力提升自己作为全球和平力量的形象,尤其是在中国走出了三年的“新冠清零”自我孤立状态、寻求重新确立在世界舞台上的大国地位之际。习近平今年已迎来多名世界领导人到访,包括法国、巴西和伊朗的领导人。北京方面暗示,它可以在调停结束乌克兰战争方面发挥作用,尽管西方领导人一直对这一说法持怀疑态度。
And in perhaps the biggest diplomatic victory for China, it facilitated secret talks between Saudi Arabia and Iran in March that led to the two countries’ surprise diplomatic rapprochement — a role that analysts said could make Beijing a major power player in the Middle East and challenge the United States’ longtime influence there.
中国最大的外交胜利也许是促成了沙特阿拉伯与伊朗今年3月的秘密谈判,致使两国出人意料地恢复了外交关系,分析人士说,中国的作用能让北京成为参与中东事务的主要力量,挑战美国在该地区长期存在的影响力。
Of course, settling the seemingly intractable conflict between Israelis and Palestinians is a vastly different task than providing mediation between Saudi Arabia and Iran, which had already been looking to reduce tensions. China also has strong economic ties with both the Saudis and the Iranians.
当然,解决棘手的以巴冲突问题完全不同于在沙伊之间斡旋,因为后者双方已经在寻求缓和紧张关系。而且中国与沙伊都有密切的经济联系。
China has long been friendly with Palestinian leaders, and this week’s visit by Mr. Abbas is his fifth to the country in his nearly two decades as the Palestinian Authority’s president. China has frequently spoken in support of Palestinian statehood and backed pro-Palestinian positions at the United Nations. On Wednesday, Mr. Xi told Mr. Abbas that China and the Palestinians were “good friends and good partners,” according to the Chinese state media. The two men also announced a strategic partnership between China and the Palestinian Authority.
中国长期以来与巴勒斯坦领导人保持友好关系,阿巴斯本周的访问是他担任巴勒斯坦民族权力机构主席近二十年来第五次访华。中国经常发表支持巴勒斯坦建国的言论,并在联合国支持亲巴勒斯坦的立场。据中国官媒报道,习近平周三对阿巴斯说,中国和巴勒斯坦是“好朋友、好伙伴”。两人还宣布双方建立战略伙伴关系。
But China’s relationship with Israel is less robust. And Israel’s alliance with the United States all but ensures that it would be much warier of giving China a role in any negotiations. Israel is already under pressure from Washington to limit Chinese investment in the country.
但中国与以色列的关系并不是那么牢固。由于跟美国的联盟关系,以色列对于让中国在任何谈判中发挥作用都会更为谨慎。以色列已受到华盛顿方面的压力,要求它限制来自中国的投资。

这是阿巴斯担任巴勒斯坦民族权力机构主席近二十年来第五次访华。 Pool photo by Jade Gao

In that sense, Mr. Xi’s meeting with Mr. Abbas was less about moving toward a resolution of the conflict than about demonstrating China’s intention to be a greater presence in the Middle East going forward, analysts said.
分析人士说,从这个意义上看,习近平与阿巴斯的会晤与其说是为解决冲突迈出的一步,不如说是为了展示中国打算在今后加强参与中东事务的意愿。
“China should be and will be quite cautious — so many superpowers squandered their resources, time, energy” in protracted conflicts in the region, said Da Wei, a professor of international relations at Tsinghua University in Beijing. “But I do think China wants to be more proactive in areas like the Middle East.”
“中国应该并且将会非常谨慎,这么多超级大国(在该地区的长期冲突上)耗费了资源、时间和精力,”北京清华大学国际关系学教授达巍说。“但我确实认为,中国想在中东等地区更积极主动。”
He continued, “We can say this is a learning process for China: China is learning to be a major power in that region, or a power in the world. And if you want to play a role on the world stage, obviously, the Middle East is one of the regions.”
他继续表示,“我们可以说,这是中国的一个学习过程:中国正在学习成为该地区的大国,或成为一个世界大国。如果想在世界舞台上发挥作用的话,中东显然是其中一个地区。”
Indeed, China has generally been ramping up its engagement in the Middle East. Mr. Xi visited Saudi Arabia in December. China and Saudi Arabia have also been deepening investment ties, and Saudi officials have bluntly dismissed concerns that their growing relationship with Beijing could cause problems with the United States.
的确,中国一直在广泛加强参与中东事务。习近平去年12月访问了沙特阿拉伯。中国和沙特也一直在深化投资关系,沙特官员已直白地驳斥了与北京日益增长的联系可能会给沙美关系带来问题的担忧。
Chinese state media outlets had talked up the possibility of a breakthrough on Israel and the Palestinian leadership. But in the Middle East, the latest proposal did not raise many hopes.
中国官媒曾大谈特谈在以巴领导层取得突破的可能性。但在中东地区,习近平的最新提议并没有带来多少希望。
“Against the backdrop of a wave of reconciliation in the Middle East, there is great anticipation for whether this visit will bring more hope for peace in the region,” an editorial in Global Times, a Chinese Communist Party tabloid, said on Tuesday. It also accused Washington of being “deeply culpable” in the Palestinian issue.
“在中东和解浪潮的大背景下,此次访问是否会给中东和平带来更多曙光,也备受期待,”中共小报《环球时报》在周二发表社评写道。社评还指责美国“在巴勒斯坦问题上起的作用非常恶劣”。
China has offered to mediate relations between the Israelis and the Palestinians before, including in 2013, 2017 and 2021. Mr. Xi’s three-part plan on Wednesday did not appear to deviate much from prior proposals. It included the creation of a fully sovereign Palestinian state, based on 1967 borders, with East Jerusalem as its capital; a call for increased international aid to a Palestinian state; and the convening of a “larger, more authoritative, more influential international peace conference” to promote talks, though the plan did not offer details.
中国以前也曾提出在以巴之间进行斡旋,包括2013年、2017年以及2021年。习近平周三提出的三点主张与中国以前的提议没有太大差别,包括“建立以1967年边界为基础、以东耶路撒冷为首都、享有完全主权的独立的巴勒斯坦国”,呼吁国际社会加大对巴勒斯坦的援助,以及为推动谈判“召开更大规模、更具权威、更有影响的国际和平会议”,但没有提供具体细节。
After peace negotiations collapsed in 2014, there appears to be little chance of their near-future resumption, with or without Chinese involvement: Both Israelis and Palestinians are deeply divided and cannot agree among themselves about how to approach the conflict, let alone find common ground with the other side. Israel’s current government is its most right-wing ever, few of its members support the concept of Palestinian sovereignty, and Chinese intervention is unlikely to change that.
巴以和平谈判已在2014年破裂,近期恢复谈判的可能性看来很小,不管有没有中国的参与。以色列人和巴勒斯坦人都存在严重分歧,无法在自己内部就如何处理冲突达成共识,更不用说与对方找到共同点。以色列现任政府是有史以来最右翼的,其成员中很少有人支持巴勒斯坦的主权地位,中国的参与也不大可能改变这点。
Still, China’s role in brokering the Saudi-Iran deal, and its growing global stature generally, have changed the stakes of its potential involvement, said Robert Mogielnicki, a senior resident scholar at the Arab Gulf States Institute in Washington, who has studied Chinese-Middle East relations. China’s past involvement in the region has been primarily economic, he said; now, Beijing is signaling that it is “graduating” from that level of support.
不过,华盛顿的阿拉伯海湾国家研究所研究中国与中东关系的高级常驻学者罗伯特·莫盖尔尼茨基表示,中国在促成沙伊朗复交方面所起的作用,以及中国在全球范围内日益增长的地位已改变了它参与巴以问题可能性的利害关系。中国过去在该地区的参与主要是经济上的,他说道,现在,中国正在发出信号,表示它正在从那个层次的支持“上升”。
“The particular context of what many people perceive as a shifting global order potentially gives more significance to this visit,” he said.
“许多人注意到全球秩序正在发生变化,这个具体背景可能赋予这次访问更多的意义,”他说。

Patrick Kingsley、Hiba Yazbek对本文有报道贡献。

Joy Dong、John Liu对本文有研究贡献。

王月眉(Vivian Wang)是《纽约时报》驻华记者,常驻北京,撰写关于中国的崛起及野心如何塑造普通人日常生活的报道。欢迎在Twitter上关注她:@vwang3

翻译:纽约时报中文网

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